Typical laterally patterned nanostructured devices based on two-dimensional electron gas confined by semiconductor heterostructures.

The above devices may be relatively large ( micron lengths) but at low temperatures they are useful for studying coherent quantum flows of electrons revealing interferences, diffraction, and tunnelling.  They are not practical for use in the electronics industry. The devices are outlined in ideal form: no rough interfaces no defects or impurities. The white region is where the 2D electron gas resides.

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